bmlm: An R package for Bayesian MultiLevel Mediation models


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bmlm is an R package providing convenient methods for Bayesian estimation of multilevel mediation models using Stan.

The package’s source code is hosted on GitHub. More information can be found on the bmlm’s website.



Please ensure you have the latest version of R installed. Windows users may need to install RTools, and OS X users may need to install XCode (see

Install from CRAN

To install the latest stable version of bmlm from CRAN, run


Install from GitHub

Sometimes the stable version on CRAN is not the latest version of bmlm. bmlm is developed on GitHub, and users may obtain the latest (development) version from GitHub directly.

The latest development version of bmlm requires devtools for installation. If you don’t have the devtools package installed in R, first run this line:


Then proceed to install bmlm from GitHub:

devtools::install_github("mvuorre/bmlm", args = "--preclean")


Please contact the author of the package for questions and suggestions. I recommend creating a new issue on GitHub.


If you use this software, please cite it:

#> To cite package 'bmlm' in publications use:
#>   Vuorre M, Bolger N (2018). "Within-subject mediation analysis for
#>   experimental data in cognitive psychology and neuroscience."
#>   _Behavior Research Methods_. doi:10.3758/s13428-017-0980-9
#>   <>.
#>   Vuorre M (2023). _bmlm: Bayesian Multilevel Mediation_. R package
#>   version 1.3.14, <>.
#> To see these entries in BibTeX format, use 'print(<citation>,
#> bibtex=TRUE)', 'toBibtex(.)', or set
#> 'options(citation.bibtex.max=999)'.